Bullying is repetitive name calling, humiliation, abuse of power, threats, and physcial violence. It is not joking or a small scale dispute.
It can also crop up in social media.
Research shows that the most effective way to combat bullying is to create an inclusive and safe school environment
Find out what is going on at school and work with the staff on issues that come up.
Children may not report bullying or discrimination to their parents. That means you need to read the signs of trouble. Children may have unexplained scratches and bruises, their bags and personal stuff may disappear for mysterious reasons, they may complain that they have no friends, their marks may plunge inexplicably, they may complain of stomach aches, and not want to go to school without explaining why.
Encourage kids to talk about what school is like, who they hang out with, who they have lunch with, to get a sense of what the relationship network is like.
Be prepared for the possibility that your child may be a victim, or a bully, and that sometimes a child can be both a victim and a bully.
It is not cool to stand by and do nothing. At the very least encourage children to go to a sympathetic adult and report what happened.
Young people learn by example.