Equal Access

The term refers to programs or public policies to promote the representation of minority groups (visible minorities, cultural communities, the disabled, women, Aboriginals), institutions and their management.

Erub or eruv

In the Jewish community, a real or symbolic creation of a boundary, for example by means of a simple wire, that delineates a zone in which certain activities normally prohibited by the religion may be carried out on Shabbat or religious holidays.

Ethnic cleansing

Action to eliminate, in a given territory, populations not belonging to the ethnic group of the “cleaners.” Massacres, systematic rape and mass deportation characterized the "cleansing" by terror in the former Yugoslavia in the 1990s. These criminal acts were carried out by Serb nationalists and, to a lesser extent, by Croatian nationalists, and in few cases Muslims.

Ethnic group

Individuals united by a number of common characteristics of civilization (language, culture, origin or common ancestry, etc.) and who possess the awareness of belonging to a single human group.


Collective traits such as language, customs and religion associated with a community (or culture), transmitted from one generation to the next, while undergoing changes.


Science and methods aimed at improving the genetic heritage of mankind and promoting or eliminating certain hereditary traits deemed desirable or undesirable through control of reproduction.

Eugenics also endeavours to improve individuals through certain adjustments to their lives. This science based on genetics and breeding raises many ethical questions, for throughout history it has given rise to certain excesses.


Denying others possibilities to meet fundamental needs or participate fully in society, especially community events.